Glad to find you reading The Adverbial Clause: Types, Functions and Examples. An adverbial clause is the subordinate, Beta or dependent clause that performs the function of an adverb in a sentence. An adverb modifies the verb in a sentence (the verb must be stated). It answers the questions: ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘why’, ‘how’, etc. This is because the adverbial clause has different types. For instance:
- When he was frightened by his friend, he ran away.
It answers the question ‘when?’ which is an adverbial clause of time.
Function: It modifies the verb ‘ran away’. (A particle of ‘fled’)
Adverbial clauses are of various types and they perform the same function of modifying the verb in the sentences in which they occur. Let us see some types…
The Adverbial Clause: Types, Functions and Examples
Let us start this discussion by first looking at the various types of adverbial clauses we have with illustrative examples…
Types of Adverbial Clauses
Adverbial Clause of Time
This refers to when an action takes place. For instance:
- As soon as the man saw his wife, he ran away.
- Before she completed the cooking, the visitors had left.
- After the church service, the children went to the zoo.
- Immediately he came home, he went to bed.
- When the war ended, many families returned to their abandoned homes.
- While she was cooking, I came in.
- The boy ran away when he saw the police.
- The thief froze as soon as he heard the sirens.
- His feeding pattern had changed since she came around.
- Until he comes, nobody will leave the house.
Adverbial Clause of Place
This refers to where an action takes place. For instance:
- Jane sat where her mother had prepared for her friend.
- I will go wherever you go.
- She promised to look for the purse wherever she might find it.
- Send us to wherever you want to.
- The plane crashed where it was difficult to locate.
- He travelled where no one could reach him.
- She fell where the makeshift wooden bridge was weak.
- I will go wherever you go.
Adverbial Clause of Manner
This refers to how an action takes place. For instance:
- The man was talking as if she was the leader of the group.
- The choir sang as though the heavens would fall.
- She performed so excellently that she got a scholarship.
- Please do it (exactly) as I instructed.
- (Just) as sugar attracts an ant (so) her beauty and congeniality attract customers to her shop.
Adverbial Clause of Reason
This clause tells us the reason for the action the verb expresses. Subordinating conjunctions such as that, because, since, as, etc. Examples include:
- The man works hard because he has debts to offset.
- Because he has money, he believes he can get away with the crime.
- He was denied entrance as he could not pay the required fees.
- He was not happy that he could not make the list.
- His people were angry that he was not elected their representative.
- She may not be charged to court since she has returned the stolen funds.
Note: sometimes, we might omit the conjunction ‘that’ as we have in the following sentences:
- He was happy he could make the list.
- His people were angry he was not elected their representative.
- I am glad you were able to come.
We use ‘as’ and ‘since’ when the reason is obvious to the listener. For instance:
- We will have to trek as the last vehicle just left.
- Since we are not the only ones involved, we will have to wait for instructions.
In the case of ‘because’, we use it when the reason is NOT obvious to the listener.
- The principal sent him out of school because he had not paid his fees.
Adverbial Clause of Condition
This clause usually states the condition the verb in the main clause stipulates. Some of the subordinating conjunctions that introduce this clause include: whether, if, provided, unless, as long as, etc. Let us take some examples:
- I will only attend the event if you personally invite me.
- Whether she likes it or not, she must complete her education in Nigeria.
- There will be no need to go to court provided you sign the papers.
- Unless we embark on industrial action, the government will not listen to our grievances.
- As long as you cooperate, there would be no problem.
Sometimes, we omit the conjunction ‘if’ and makes use of the modal auxiliary ‘should’ and the non-modal auxiliary ‘were’. For example:
- Were it not for my teacher, I would not have become a lawyer.
- Should you come tomorrow, bring my umbrella.
A relative pronoun may sometimes introduce a clause of condition. Look at the following:
- Whatever he gives you, do not complain.
- However carefully you hide, the security man will certainly see you.
Adverbial Clause of Concession
As the name of this clause goes, it usually states that which we admit or acknowledge in the main clause. The subordinators that introduce this clause are mainly ‘though’ and ‘although’. However, there are other subordinators that could mean either of these words and which we could use in expressing concessionary clauses. These include: even though, while, despite, in spite of, whereas, etc. Let us see some sentences that exemplify the adverbial clause of concession…
- Although he was indisposed, he went to the office.
- Though he was a trained teacher, he detests teaching.
- While she cannot speak French, she likes visiting Francophone countries.
- Even though he cannot drive, he loves cars.
- They eat out every weekend though they have a cook.
- Though the kids are poor, they are very lively and happy.
- Although he loves to take her out, his father would not allow him.
- While it is true that investments pay, there is a need to be knowledgeable about business.
- Despite the fact that he read very well, he failed the examination.
- In spite of his popularity, he was not recognised.
Adverbial Clause of Purpose
We usually introduce this clause by subordinating conjunctions such as that, so that, lest, in order that, etc. The clause tells us the purpose of the action the verb states. Examples include:
- He reads so hard so that he can graduate top of his class.
- You need to shed off some weight lest you should become obese.
- The ceremony was rounded off in order that attendees might get to their destinations on time.
- We work that we may earn and have to give.
- We should work smarter and not harder so that we will not wear out our bodies.
Note: Modal auxiliary verbs usually follow the ‘so that’ clauses. It is also possible to omit ‘that’ in some instances like:
- I was here last week so I could talk you out of the deal.
- You need to shed off some weight lest you become obese.
- Set out on time lest you miss the bus.
Adverbial Clause of Degree or Comparison
Adverbial Clause of degree usually indicates the degree, that is, the relative extent or the comparison of the verb in the main or independent clause. It answers the questions how much, how many or how little. The subordinate conjunctions that usually introduce this clause include as, than, as…as, so…as and others. Let us see some examples of this clause:
- She is as loquacious as she is ill-mannered.
- The factory is bigger than the one in the capital city.
- The students were quicker in solving the sums than I expected.
- You are not as troublesome as your brother.
- The villains are as cunning as a fox
- We are as qualified as their own team.
Things to Note about Adverbial Clause of Degree or Comparison
Sometimes, we might consider the correlative ‘the…the’ as a conjunction which introduces the adverb clause of degree. Examples of this instance include the following:
- The more one grows older the more patient one becomes.
- The richer you become the more generous you ought to be.
Also, in adverbial clauses of degree, we normally understand the verb even though we do not express it. Let us illustrate with these sentences:
- I write as much as you (do write). or
- I write as much as you (do).
- She is as intelligent as her sister (is).
- We are as busy as you (are).
- The officer earns more than I (do).
We should note that when we do not express the verb, it is more appropriate to use object pronouns after ‘as’ and ‘than’. Let us illustrate each of these pairs…
She can dance as well as him.
- She can dance well as he does.
- Nobody in the office works harder than her.
- Nobody in the office works harder than she does.
- He is taller than me.
- He is taller than I am.
- We can play better than them.
- We can play better than they do.
- The dog is bigger than it.
- The dog is bigger than it is.
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